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理性本位视野下智能机器人民事法律地位的认定

叶明,朱静洁

(西南政法大学 经济法学院,重庆 401120)

摘  要:智能机器人的著作权归属、数据权利确认、侵权责任认定等争议问题的解决,关键在于如何认定智能机器人的民事法律地位。智能机器人民事法律地位的认定应以“理性本位”为理念,以“理性”作为智能机器人享有民事主体地位的根本依据。智能机器人民事主体地位的具体划分可类比我国自然人民事主体法律地位的划分标准,以理性程度作为基本尺度,将“理性”具化为智能机器人的智能化程度与理性指数,把智能机器人划分为无民事行为能力机器人、限制民事行为能力机器人或完全民事行为能力机器人三种基本类型。根据智能机器人民事主体地位的差别,明确不同法律地位智能机器人民事权利、义务与责任的范围。

关键词:人工智能;智能机器人;民事法律地位;理性本位;民事主体

Recognition of the Civil Legal Status of Intelligent Robot from the Perspect of Rational Standard

YE Ming ,ZHU Jing-jie

( Southwest University of Political Science and Law,Chongqing 401120,China)

Abstract: The key to solving the problems like intelligent robot’s ownership of copyright, recognition of data rights and recognition of tort liability, etc.is how to determinate the civil legal status of intelligent robot. The identity of the intelligent robot's civil legal status should base on the concept of "rational" in the civil legal system, and it is based on "rational" as the basis for the civil rights of the intelligent robot. The specific classifications of the civil rights of the intelligent robot are parallel to the classifications of the legal status of the civil rights of the natural person in the country, the rational degree of rationality as a basic measure, and try to transform the rational into the intelligence and the rational index of the intelligent robot, and the intelligent robot is divided into the uncivil capacity intelligent robot, the limited civil capacity intelligent robot or the full civil capacity intelligent robot. According to the different civil subject status of intelligent robot, the scope of civil rights, obligations and responsibilities of intelligent robot with different legal status is clarified.

Key Words:Artificial Intelligence; Intelligent Robot; Civil Legal Status; the Rational Standard;Civil subject

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