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环境侵权惩罚性赔偿争议问题研究
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环境侵权惩罚性赔偿争议问题研究

 王树义 龚雄艳  

(武汉大学法学院,湖北 武汉430072)

摘 要:民法典第1232条之规定正式在环境侵权领域引入惩罚性赔偿。与民事范畴的其他惩罚性赔偿一样,环境侵权惩罚性赔本质上为私人执法,应归属被侵权人所有,在现有规范下尚不涉及作为公共款项专款专用的问题。环境侵权惩罚性赔偿与公益诉讼中的生态环境损害赔偿具有不同质性,私益侵权的惩罚性赔偿不能替代生态环境修复责任或修复费用等赔偿责任,私益诉讼中惩罚性赔偿可以与公益诉讼中的修复责任等并处。迄今为止,我国并没有在公益诉讼中规定惩罚性赔偿,但实践中有法院在公益诉讼案件中判决了惩罚性赔偿。从法理上讲,在环境民事公益诉讼中判决惩罚性赔偿缺乏依据,且会造成重复性惩罚,惩罚性赔偿尚不适宜纳入环境民事公益诉讼之中。

关键词:环境侵权;惩罚性赔偿;生态环境损害;修复责任;公益诉讼

Research on the Issue of Punitive Damages

for Environmental Tort

WANG Shu-yi  GONG Xiong-yan

(School of Law,Wuhan University,Wuhan 430072,China)

Abstract: Article 1232 of the Civil Code formally introduces punitive damages in the field of environmental tort. Like other punitive damages in the civil category, punitive damages for Environmental Torts are essentially private law enforcement, and should belong to the infringed. Punitive compensation for environmental tort is different from compensation for ecological environmental damage in Public Interest Litigation. Punitive compensation for infringement of private interest can not replace compensation for environmental repair responsibility or repair cost, the punitive damages in private interest litigation can be combined with the repair responsibility in public interest litigation. Up to now, China has not stipulated punitive damages in Public Interest Litigation, but in practice, some courts have decided punitive damages in public interest litigation cases. Legally speaking, there is no basis to award punitive damages in Environmental Public Interest Litigation, and it will cause repeated punishment. Punitive damages should not be included in environmental public interest litigation.


 

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