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“三块地”改革背景下宅基地使用权继承的制度重构
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“三块地”改革背景下宅基地使用权继承的制度重构

汪 洋*


摘 要:宅基地使用权能否继承的问题根源在于其作为生存保障工具的价值预设应否维持。在“征地制度”“集体经营性建设用地入市制度”“宅基地三权分置”的“三块地”改革背景下,宅基地成为集体建设用地范畴下的一种子类型,符合条件时可以与其他类型的集体建设用地相互转化,实现宅基地与其他类型集体建设用地的功能分工。因而宅基地使用权继承问题需要在集体建设用地这一更大的类型框架下进行制度重构。适格保有宅基地使用权的继承人有权单独继承宅基地使用权,反之则由集体经济组织收回。若宅基地上建有房屋,房地一体导致房屋的可继承性与宅基地使用权能否继承的不明确性之间产生冲突。继承人不适格保有宅基地使用权时,土地性质转化为有偿且有期限的集体经营性建设用地使用权,继承人需要补缴出让金;继承人也可以选择将房屋有偿转让给适格获得宅基地的本集体成员或者将宅基地使用权退回集体经济组织,由集体赎买房屋或进行价值补偿。不应对宅基地使用权继承和遗赠进行区分对待,宅基地使用权共同继承中,依据继承人身份、与被继承人分户居住或同户居住等情形区分处理。

关键词:宅基地使用权 集体建设用地继承 三权分置 三块地改革

The Reconstruction of Inheritance of Right to Use Homestead Land Under the Background of “Three Pieces of Land” Reform

Abstract: It depends on the persistence of value presetting of life security whether the right to use homestead land can be inherited. Under the background of “three pieces of land” reform which means “land expropriation”, “market circulation of collective construction land for commercial purpose” and “separation of three rights”, the homestead land is the sub-type of the collective construction land that can be transformed into other types of collective construction land when requirements are met. It can realize the goal of functional division of homestead land and other types of collective construction land. Therefore it should be reconstructed in terms of the inheritance question under the whole collective construction land framework. The successor who is entitled to the right to use homestead can inherit the right, otherwise the collective economic organization shall recover the homestead land. When the house is built on the homestead land, conflict will arise between the inheritance of the house and ambiguity concerning the inheritance of the right to use homestead land. If the successor isn’t qualified to acquire the right to use homestead land, the land then will be transformed into the the collective construction land for commercial purpose which is onerous and time limited. And the successor has the alternative either to pay transfer fee or to transfer it to the collective member who is entitled to the right, to return the homestead land to the collective economic organization that will buy the house or provide value compensation. There is no difference between the inheritance and bequest of the right to use homestead land. In the case of joint succession, the problem should be solved according to the identity of the successor, the situation of successor’s living with the ancestor together or not.

Key Words: right to use homestead land; collective construction land; inheritance; separation of three rights; three pieces of land reform


 

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