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民事程序规范层次论
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                                                             民事程序规范层次论

                                                                 占善刚 刘洋*

摘  要: 为保障民事诉讼程序适法流畅地推进,当事人及受诉法院应当遵循民事程序规范的要件、方式实施诉讼行为,但由于不同程序规范各自的制度目的、性质以及强行效力存在差异,违背程序规范的诉讼行为未必无效,应当对民事程序规范作出层次划分,用以判明不同性质程序违法的效力状态。遵循程序正义与程序安定相平衡、行为规范与评价规范相分离、程序错误与救济手段相匹配的程序法理与解释方法,以程序规范的效力等级为依据,可以将民事程序规范划分为训示规范与效力规范,效力规范可进一步区分为任意规范与强行规范。以此层次论要求审视我国民事程序立法,其失范处主要有三。其一、二审发回重审的程序违法事由偏离发回重审的制度趣旨,且不符合例示规范的要求;其二、再审程序违法的诸事由分属不同层次,仅审判组织组成不合法、应当回避的审判人员未回避、诉讼代理权不合法三项违背强行规范且符合再审的补充性与谦抑性特质;其三、程序异议权的制度性缺漏肇致司法实践中大量违背任意规范的“一般性程序违法”缺乏及时有效的规制手段。应当依据科学的民事程序规范层次化理论对我国民事程序规范进行改进。

关键词: 程序安定;诉讼行为;效力规范;任意规范;强行规范

                On  the  Level  division  of  civil  procedure

                                    Zhang shangang    Liu Yang

Abstract:  In order to ensure the smooth progress of civil procedure in accordance with the law, the parties and the court to be sued should follow the elements and methods of civil procedure norms to carry out the action. However, due to the differences in the system purpose, nature and force effect of different procedural norms, the action against procedural norms may not be invalid. Therefore, it is necessary to make a hierarchical division of civil procedure norms in order to judge different ones. The effectiveness of the nature of the illegal procedure. Following the procedural jurisprudence and interpretation methods of balancing procedural justice with procedural stability, separating behavioral norms from evaluation norms, and matching procedural errors with remedies, based on the effectiveness level of procedural norms, civil procedural norms can be divided into instruction norms and effectiveness norms, and effectiveness norms can be further divided into arbitrary norms and forced norms. According to this level theory, there are three main irregularities in the legislation of civil procedure. First, the illegal reasons of the retrial procedure of the second instance deviate from the interesting purpose of the retrial system, and do not meet the requirements of the exemplification standard; second, the illegal matters of the retrial procedure belong to different levels, only the illegal composition of the trial organization, the unavoidability of the judicial personnel who should be avoided, and the illegality of the litigation agency violate the compulsory standard, and conform to the supplementary and modest characteristics of the retrial; Third, the lack of the right of procedural objection results in a large number of "general procedural violations" against arbitrary norms in judicial practice, which lack of timely and effective regulatory means. We should improve our country

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