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被推崇为“良法”的康熙、雍正诸条例
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被推崇为“良法”的康熙、雍正诸条例

——劝与惩的导向及其精神

霍存福 程令政

(吉林大学 法学院,吉林 长春 130012)

摘要:《清史稿·刑法志》的作者许受衡,在评价清代法律形式之一的“例”时,一口气说了清代的6类7种“良法”。它们出现于多个领域,既有正面的“教”、“劝”,又有反面的“惩”、“杜”,是许受衡所认为的体现清代盛世气象的“良法”。本文以为,这里的总体精神是在劝与惩之间,作者是既嘉其宽,又赏其严。许受衡以“隐合古义”和“矫正前失”为判定制度优秀与否的两个标准。前者被理解为是“复古”,后者被理解为是“矫弊”,两者同被认为是有所进步、有所创新的两大领域。最终体现的,是或严、或宽。严、宽之间,宽有宽的道理,严有严的考虑。在许受衡关于清代法律的总体评价里,我们能体味到的是作者对这些制度、这些措置,以及在这背后的观念、意识、精神的自信,而丝毫看不出这是在大清帝国已经覆灭之后关于末世之法的一种回顾。这是一种制度的自信,是中国人对其良法美意的肯定。

关键词:许受衡;制度自信;《清史稿·刑法志》;良法;文化自信

中图分类号:DF92            文献标识码:A                文章编号:

The Regulations of Kangxi and Yongzheng which are praised as "Good Law"

—— Guidance and Spirit of Persuasion and Punishment

HUO CunfuCHENGLingzheng

(School of Law,JilinUniversity,Changchun Jilin 130012 China)

Abstract:XuShouheng, the author of the QingShiGao(The history of Qing Dynasty·Criminal Law), commented on the "legal code" of one of the legal forms of the Qing Dynasty, and said six categories and seven "good laws" of the Qing Dynasty in one time.They appeared in many fields, including positive "teaching", "persuasion", and negative "punishment" ," eradicate", which XuShouheng thought was a "good law" reflecting the prosperous climate of the Qing Dynasty. This paper holds that the general spirit here is between persuasion and punishment, and the author praises both leniency and severity. XuShouheng takes "concealing the ancient meaning" and "correcting the former loss" as two criteria to judge whether the system is good or not. The former is understood as "retro", while the latter is understood as "cheating", both of which are regarded as two areas of progress and innovation. Ultimately, it is either strict or lenient. Between strictness and leniency, there is a reason for leniency and strict consideration. In XuShouheng's overall evaluation of the laws of the Qing Dynasty, we can appreciate the author's self-confidence in these systems, these measures, and the concepts, consciousness and spirit behind them, but we can not see that this is a review of the laws of the last ages after the collapse of the Qing Empire. This is the confidence of the system and the affirmation of the good law and the good will of the Chinese people.

Key words:XuShouheng; Institutional Confidence;QingShiGao(The history of Qing Dynasty·Criminal Law);good law;Cultural Confidence


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