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民法典的实施与民事强制执行法的协调和衔接
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民法典的实施与民事强制执行法的协调和衔接*

谷佳杰**

(西南政法大学,重庆401120)

摘要:《民法典》的实施需要民事强制执行法的协调和衔接。一方面《民法典》新制度的实施需要民事强制执行规范予以协调;另一方面,民事强制执行立法需要以《民法典》实施为契机进一步完善。民事实体法、民事诉讼法与民事强制执行法构成了自下而上的阶层逻辑,三者是三个平行的法律部门,相互之间不存在上位法与下位法以及一般法与特别法之关系。而由于我国民事实体法中行为规范的作用与民事诉讼法学的贫困化,造成民事强制执行法逆向补充规则,使得三者呈现逆向的位阶构造。在现有规则的协调方面,民事强制执行法不宜确立执行平等原则,应删除执行时效而直接适用诉讼时效,矫正执行当事人变更追加的不合理规定,取消案外人实体性执行救济中的案外人异议、建立债务人异议之诉以及废除执行回转。在立法制度的衔接方面,民事强制执行立法应将涉居住权执行视为涉租赁权执行、对无形财产采取分散立法且完善对债权执行的规定以及进一步明确对夫妻债务的执行规则。

关键词:民法典;民事强制执行法;实体法与执行法的关系;诉讼法与执行法的关系;逆向补充规则

The Implementation of the Civil Code and the Coordination and Connection of the Civil Compulsory Execution Law

GU Jia-jie

(Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing 401120,China )

Abstract:The implementation of the Civil Code needs the coordination and connection of the civil compulsory execution law. On the one hand, the coordination of the civil compulsory execution law is needed to implement the Civil Code’s new system. On the other hand, the legislation of the civil compulsory execution law is supposed to grasp this chance to further improve itself with the implementation of the Civil Code. Civil substantive law, civil procedure law and civil compulsory execution law constitute a hierarchy logic from the bottom to the top. They are three parallel legal departments, which means that there is no relationship between higher-level law and lower-level law, or between general law and special law. Due to the function of the code of conduct in the civil substantive law and the impoverishment of the civil procedural law, the civil compulsory execution law supplement relative rules reversely and the three show a reverse order structure. In terms of the coordination of the existing rules, the principle of equality is not suitable for the civil compulsory execution law. Meanwhile, the limitation of execution should be changed by the limitation of action directly and the unreasonable rules of changing and adding enforcement parties should be corrected. Also, the objection system of outsider in the substantive execution relief and recovery of execution need canceling and the lawsuit of the debtor is supposed to be established. In terms of the connection of the legislative system, the civil enforcement legislation should regard the enforcement of residence rights as one which connected to lease rights, and adopt decentralized legislation on intangible property. In the same time, it should improve the rules about the enforcement of creditor's rights, and further clarify the enforcement rules for husband and wife's debts.

Key words: civil code;civil compulsory execution law;relationship between substantive law and procedural law;relationship between  procedural law and execution law;reverse supplement to relative  rules


 

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