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行政非强制行为中的意志平衡研究
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行政非强制行为中的意志平衡研究*

陈晓枫[1] 李兰图[2]

(武汉大学法学院,湖北武汉,430072)

内容提要:如将行政行为视作行政主体公共意志的表达,根据行政主体与相对人之间意志力量的对比,可将行政行为界分为强制行为与非强制行为:“强制”意味着“行政主体对相对人的意志支配”,“非强制”意味着“行政主体与相对人的意志平衡”。意志平衡本质是公益与私益的对立统一。不具强制力的行政行为在世界各国广泛存在,英国称为“非正式调查”,美国称为“非正式裁决”,德国称为“未型式化行政行为”,日本称为“非权力行政行为”,我国称为“非强制行政行为”。这些定义多从程序、型式、拘束力等角度进行界定,但如从意志平衡的角度,可提出“行政非强制行为”的概念。

关键词:非强制 行政行为  意志支配 意志平衡 行政非强制行为

中图分类号: DF31   文献标识码: A   文章编号:

Balance of Will in the Administrative Non-Compulsive Action

CHEN Xiao-Feng ; LI Lan-Tu

Abstract: In the practice of the public administration all over the world, there widely exists the non-compulsive administration action relying on the voluntary consultation between individual and administrative organization. In the UK, it is referred to as “unofficial investigation”; in the US, it is referred to as “unofficial verdict”; in Germany, it is referred to as “non-authorized administrative action”; in China, it is referred to as “non- compulsive administration action”. The different definitions demonstrate the external features at the experience levels of procedure, formulation, public power and legal binding force, etc. But up to now, in the academic field, there is not the analysis carried out on the nature of such actions from the interior: non-compulsive. In this paper, the administration action is regarded as “the expression of the public ideal of administrative subject”, which approaches to distinguish “compulsive” from “non-compulsive”: if “compulsive” means “the control of administrative subject on individual’s will”, so “non-compulsive” will mean “the balance between administrative subject and individual” which further indicates that the nature of the balance is the unity of opposites between the public interest and the private interest. Based on that, the concept of “administrative non-compulsive action” is put forward in this paper.

Key words: Non-compulsive; Administrative Act; Control of will; Balance of will; Administrative non-compulsive action.


*基金项目:本文系2018年国家社科基金年度项目“中华法文化的话语体系研究”(项目编号:18BFX026)资助。

 

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